Kapangidwe ka telesikopu kopyapyala kocheperako kangathe kuposa James Webb

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Kulitsani / Kapangidwe ka telesikopu yopepuka, yotchipa imapangitsa kuti zitheke kuyika mayunitsi ambiri mumlengalenga nthawi imodzi.

Akatswiri a zakuthambo apeza zambiri kuposa Mapulaneti 5,000 kunja kwa solar system mpaka pano. Funso lalikulu ndilakuti lililonse la mapulaneti amenewa ndi kwawo kwa zamoyo. Kuti apeze yankho, akatswiri a zakuthambo angafune matelesikopu amphamvu kwambiri kuposa lero.

Ine ndine katswiri wa zakuthambo amene amaphunzira zakuthambo ndi mapulaneti ozungulira nyenyezi zakutali. Kwa zaka zisanu ndi ziwiri zapitazi, ndakhala ndikutsogolera gulu lomwe likupanga mtundu watsopano wa telescope wamlengalenga womwe ungathe kusonkhanitsa kuwala kochuluka kuwirikiza ka zana kuposa James Webb Space Telescopemakina oonera zakuthambo aakulu kwambiri amene anapangidwapo.

Pafupifupi ma telesikopu onse am’mlengalenga, kuphatikiza Hubble ndi Webb, amasonkhanitsa kuwala pogwiritsa ntchito magalasi. Telesikopu yathu yomwe tikufuna, ya Nautilus Space Observatory, angalowe m’malo mwa magalasi akuluakulu olemera n’kuikamo lens lopyapyala, lopepuka kwambiri, lotsika mtengo, komanso losavuta kupanga kuposa matelesikopu agalasi. Chifukwa cha kusiyana kumeneku, zikanakhala zotheka kuyika mayunitsi ambiri mu orbit ndikupanga makina amphamvu a telescope.

Ma Exoplanets, monga TOI-700d omwe akuwonetsedwa mu lingaliro la wojambula uyu, ndi mapulaneti opitilira dzuwa lathu ndipo ndi omwe ali otsogolera pakufunafuna moyo.
Kulitsani / Ma Exoplanets, monga TOI-700d omwe akuwonetsedwa mu lingaliro la wojambula uyu, ndi mapulaneti opitilira dzuwa lathu ndipo ndi omwe ali otsogolera pakufunafuna moyo.

Kufunika kwa ma telescope akuluakulu

Mapulaneti otchedwa exoplanets—mapulaneti amene amazungulira nyenyezi zina osati Dzuwa—ndiwo chandamale chachikulu pakusaka zamoyo. Akatswiri a zakuthambo amayenera kugwiritsa ntchito makina oonera zakuthambo a m’mlengalenga omwe amasonkhanitsa kuwala kochuluka phunzirani zinthu zofowoka ndi zakutali izi.

Ma telescope omwe alipo amatha kuzindikira ma exoplanets ang’onoang’ono ngati Dziko lapansi. Komabe, pamafunika kusamala kwambiri kuti muyambe kuphunzira za kapangidwe kake ka mapulaneti. Ngakhale Webb ilibe mphamvu zokwanira kusaka ena exoplanets kuti zidziwitso za moyo-kuti mpweya mumlengalenga.

The James Webb Space Telescope imadula kuposa $8 biliyoni ndipo zinatenga zaka 20 kuti amange. Chowonera chowonera chotsatira chotsatira sichikuyembekezeka kuwuluka 2045 isanafike ndipo akuyerekezeredwa mtengo $11 biliyoni. Ntchito zazikuluzikulu za telescopezi nthawi zonse zimakhala zodula, zolemetsa, ndipo zimapanga chowonera chimodzi champhamvu, koma chapadera kwambiri.

Mtundu watsopano wa telescope

Mu 2016, chimphona chachikulu chamlengalenga Northrop Grumman Anandiitana ine ndi maprofesa ena 14 ndi asayansi a NASA—onse akatswiri a zakuthambo ndi kufufuza zamoyo zakuthambo—ku Los Angeles kuti tiyankhe funso limodzi: Kodi matelesikopu a zakuthambo a exoplanet adzakhala otani m’zaka 50?

M’zokambitsirana zathu, tinazindikira kuti cholepheretsa chachikulu cholepheretsa kupanga makina oonera zakuthambo amphamvu kwambiri ndi vuto la kupanga magalasi akuluakulu ndi kuwalowetsa m’njira. Kuti tidutse vutoli, ochepa a ife adabwera ndi lingaliro loyang’ananso luso lakale lotchedwa diffractive lens.

Ma lens wamba amagwiritsa ntchito refraction kuti ayang’ane kuwala. Refraction ndi pamene kuwala kumasintha njira pamene imadutsa kuchokera ku sing’anga kupita ku ina – ndichifukwa chake kuwala kumapindika pamene ikulowa m’madzi. Mosiyana ndi izi, diffraction ndi pamene kuwala kumapindika kumakona ndi zopinga. Ndondomeko yokonzedwa mwanzeru ya masitepe ndi ngodya pagalasi imatha kupanga diffractive lens.

Magalasi oyamba otere adapangidwa ndi wasayansi waku France Augustin-Jean Fresnel mu 1819 kuti apereke magalasi opepuka kuti azitha kugwiritsa ntchito. nyumba zoyendera magetsi. Masiku ano, magalasi ofananirako ofanana amatha kupezeka m’mawonekedwe ang’onoang’ono ogula-kuchokera magalasi a kamera ku zomvera zenizeni zenizeni.

Zoonda, zosavuta diffractive magalasi ndi odziwika chifukwa cha zithunzi zawo zosawoneka bwino, motero sanagwiritsidwepo ntchito m’malo oonera zakuthambo. Koma ngati mungawongolere bwino, kugwiritsa ntchito magalasi owoneka bwino m’malo mwa magalasi kapena magalasi owoneka bwino kumapangitsa kuti telesikopu yakuthambo ikhale yotsika mtengo, yopepuka komanso yayikulu.

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